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dc.contributor.authorForster, Men
dc.contributor.authorVerbist, Gen
dc.contributor.authorVaalavuo, Men
dc.description.abstractThis paper looks at how the income distribution in countries changes when the value of publicly-provided services to households is included. We consider five major categories of public services: education, health care, social housing, childcare and elderly care. On average across OECD countries, spending on these “inkind” benefits accounts for about 13% of GDP, slightly more than the spending on cash transfers – but with considerable cross-country variation. Broadening the income concept to account for in-kind benefits considerably increases households‟ economic resources: in a typical OECD country, the average annual household income would be close to USD 28 000, rather than USD 22 000 in purchasing power parities. But public services also contribute to reducing income inequality, by between one-fifth and one-third depending on the inequality measure. Mexico and, according to most inequality measures, the United States, Portugal, Ireland, and the United Kingdom record higher reduction rates, while Slovenia records lower ones. Across all countries, redistributive effects are stronger among specific population groups at higher risk of poverty. Between 2000 and 2007, the redistributive impact of public services remained stable overall. However, the impact became stronger in countries where the share of services in household income increased significantly, while it weakened in those countries where this share decreased. The paper suggests that publicly provided services fulfil an important direct redistributive role in OECD countries.en
dc.publisherOECD 2, rue André-Pascal 75775 Paris, CEDEX 16 Franceen
dc.subjectIncome & Finance -- Poverty and disadvantageen
dc.subjectEducation and Trainingen
dc.subjectHousing -- Equity (including use of)en
dc.titleThe Impact of Publicly Provided Services on the Distribution of Resourcesen
dc.typeReports and technical papersen
dc.description.institutionOrganisation for Economic Co-operation and Developmenten
dc.title.reportOECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers No. 130en
dc.description.keywordsIn-kind transfersen
dc.description.keywordsIncome distributionen
dc.description.keywordsPublic Servicesen
dc.description.additionalinfoCopyright OECD 2010en
dc.subject.dssLearning, education and trainingen
dc.subject.dssIncome, wealth and financesen
dc.subject.dssmaincategoryIncome & Financeen
dc.subject.dssmaincategoryEducation and Trainingen
dc.subject.dsssubcategoryPoverty and disadvantageen
dc.subject.dsssubcategoryEquity (including use of)en
dc.subject.flosseIncome, wealth and financesen
dc.subject.flosseLearning, education and trainingen
item.fulltextNo Fulltext-
item.openairetypeReports and technical papers-
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